SOOS Infographics






Schematic illustration of the observation and models required to resolve key uncertainties regarding the impacts of global change on Southern Ocean ecosystems.

Citation: Newman et al., (2019). Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 433. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00433



Schematic of the key elements of a Southern Ocean air-sea flux observing system in order to reduce uncertainties in air-sea and air-sea-ice fluxes of heat, momentum, freshwater, and carbon.

Citation: Newman et al., (2019). Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 433. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00433






Schematic of the platforms required to observe key sea-ice processes toward capturing circumpolar sea-ice variability and deriving sea-ice thickness and volume.

Citation: Newman et al., (2019). Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 433. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00433


Components of an optimal observing system to constrain and quantify biogeochemical cycling processes in the Southern Ocean.

Citation: Newman et al., (2019). Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 433. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00433



Schematic of the integrated system of observational platforms required to determine the contribution of oceanic heat to ice-shelf melt for a generic ice-shelf configuration.


Citation: Newman et al., (2019). Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 433. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00433



Major biological energy pathways by which energy moves from primary producers to higher trophic levels in Southern Ocean ecosystems (integrated across seasons and across sea-ice environments).


Citation: Newman et al., (2019). Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 433. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00433
If you require any other versions of these infographics, please contact the SOOS Executive Officer.